Civilization and culture

Gorlova I., Zorin A.

Bespalova T.

Cultural History

Elchaninov A.

Lysenko A.

Svistunova I.

Applied Cultural Research

Mebonia E., Bespalov A., Molodova A.


Rybak K.

Elchaninov A.
On the Great Silk road – to the ice silk route – to peace way and economic cooperation
Abstract. The project on the organization of trade relations between China and other countries arosed in the second half of the 2nd century BC. The caravan road connecting East Asia with the Mediterranean in the ancient time and to the Middle Ages was used, first of all, for export of silk from China. Therefore in 1877 the German geographer F.F. von Richtgofen called this route giving the chance for establishment of business contacts, cultural dialogue, promoting the relative enrichment of large civilizations, – «A silk road». By 15th century the overland Silk road fell into decay, sea trade and navigation began to develop.

At the real stage of development the mankind realized need of restitution of the interstate and international interaction inherent in the period of existence of the Great silk road.

At the XXIV session of the UNESCO General conference in 1987 the project on complex studying of the Great silk road was developed. This international project worked according to two large programs of UNESCO: «The environment surrounding the person, resources of the ground and sea» and «The Culture and the future».

Implementation of the project took place in several stages, one of which in 1991 was a stage «Steppe Road», length 12.5 thousand km.

In the next years development of the idea of reconstruction and expansion of the opportunities put in the ancient times in the Great silk road continued.

In 2013 the Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward the concept of «A new silk road» under the slogan «One Belt — One Road» including the «Economic Belt of the Silk Road» and «Sea Silk Road of the 21st Century» projects. The strategy of «A new silk road» included the project of development of the Northern Sea Route.

The Northern Sea Route – the major navigable main passing across the seas of Arctic Ocean, connecting the European and Far East ports and also mouths of the navigable Siberian rivers in the unite transport system of the Arctic.

History of the Northern Sea Route begins with the first swimmings of Pomors. Development, studying and the description of maritime routes of the Russian Arctic continued further. Development of the Arctic navigation promoted the beginning of the industrial development of natural resources of the region. The large-scale industrial development of the Arctic territories began in the 1930th.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 ice breakers played a large role in conducting of northern convoys. The existing ports were specially converted, new polar stations are built and also additional airfields are developed. In post-war years the Arctic navigation gained further development thanks to the commissioning of icebreaking vessels of new classes.

The map of the Northern Sea Route on which built in the 1930th -1940th the objects are shown is presented in the article.

In July, 2017 during the visit to Russia the Chinese President Xi Jinping with the Рresident V. V. Putin reached the important agreement on development and use of the Arctic Sea Route and creation of the Ice Silk Route, the sea way uniting North America, East Asia and Western Europe.

Within the project of «The Ice Silk Route» tankers with production of Yamal LNG for the first time in the history went the Arctic Sea Route without icebreaking maintenance in the summer of 2018 and profit from the Arctic port Sabbeta to the Chinese port Jiangsu Zhudong. By these flights the beginning of the regular supply of LNG across the Northern Sea Route is opened.

Key words:
Great Silk Road, Northern Sea Route, Ice Silk Road, way of the world, economic cooperation, cultural heritage, mapping.
Elchaninov Anatoly Ivanovich,
PhD in Geography,
Russian Scientific Research Institute for Cultural
and Natural Heritage named after D.Likhachev (Moscow),


  Russian Scientific
  Research Institute
  for Cultural and
  Natural Heritage
  named after

  Russian Scientific
  Research Institute
  for Cultural and
  Natural Heritage
  named after 

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date: 03.09.2014


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